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What is Stainless Steel?

What is Stainless Steel?


Stainless steel is the name of high alloy steel mainly used for anti-corrosion properties. The main feature of the stainless steel family is that they all contain at least 10.5% chromium. This allows the steel to resist corrosive atmospheres or corrosive chemical environments. There are 60 different types of stainless steel divided into 5 different categories. Although stainless steel is expensive from carbon steel and alloy steel and has less use in the global market, it has a very important place in world markets.
In 1913, English-born Harry Brearly discovered stainless steel. During an experiment, he observed that the steel's resistance to corrosion increased when the chrome content in the steel was increased to 12% or more. Harry Brearly is known as the person who laid the foundations for stainless steel and has contributed to the development of many types of stainless steel.
The development process of stainless steel came to a standstill during the First World War. By the end of the 1920s, it was understood that martensitic and austenitic stainless steel types were the most useful species. Martensitic stainless steels contain between 13% and 18% chromium, while austenitic paslnamaz group contains 18% chromium and 8% nickel.
In today's markets, the term stainless steel is used in the sense of steel with a minimum of 10.5% chromium and high corrosion resistance. Thanks to the chromium, a self-renewing layer is formed around the steel, which is the most important factor preventing the corrosion of the steel.
The development of stainless steel continues today and is divided into 5 main groups; austenitic, ferritic, martensitic, duplex and precipitation hardening alloys.
300 Series Austenitic - Alloys:
301, 302, 303, 304, 305, 308, 309, 310, 314, 316, 321 series stainless steels contain chromium and nickel. Heat treatment is not possible and does not hold magnets. Their ability to take shape is high. 300 series or austenitic stainless steels account for about 70% of world stainless steel production. The austenitic structure is formed by the addition of approximately 8-10% nickel. However, nickel alone does not create the austenitic structure.Manganese, nitrogen, carbon and copper with the help of other elements such as the austenitic property is created. Molybdenum supplementation with increased corrosion resistance. It is used in decoration, machine manufacturing, white goods, chemical industry and sink manufacturing.
400 Series Ferritic - Alloys:
405, 409, 429, 430, 434, 436, 442, The stainless steels in this series contain chrome. They are magnetizable but not heat treated. Ferritic stainless steels are generally made of high chromium (12% to 30%), not containing nickel, but a stainless steel group containing carbide formers such as molybdenum, titanium vanadium, and alloying elements that make the ferritic structure stable. The high chromium content they contain usually provides a very high corrosion resistance to the ferritics. Ferritic stainless steels, which have mechanical and physical properties close to the properties of carbon steel, which are close relatives, are magnetic, unlike austenitics, cannot be heat treated due to their low carbon content and can be easily rolled. Heat treatment annealing is the only process that can be applied to such steels. They are not suitable for shaping up as austenitics.

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